TIMELINE : ABORTION RIGHTS

             PART ONE - COLONIAL TIMES TO 1973

             PART TWO - 1973 TO 2013


                                  PART ONE

MYTH: The right to abortion began on January 22, 1973,
when without public debate or popular support, women
were "given" the right to choose after 7 of 9 men on the
Supreme Court overturned ancient, universal traditions
by invalidating 50 state laws which had always recog-
nized that "personhood" began at conception.

FACT: Legal abortion has been the rule - not the exception -
throughout most of U.S. history, and in the years just pre-
ceding "Roe vs. Wade," prochoicers had been spectacularly
successful in bringing about the re-legalization of abortion.


COLONIAL TIMES: Common Law held that abortion prior
to "quickening" (the point at which movements of the fetus
can be felt, usually about 16-18 weeks) was NOT a crime.
Even after that stage, it's questionable that abortion was
ever firmly established or regularly prosecuted as even a
misdemeanor offense. (A-1: 132,135,136)

EARLY AMERICA: According to Professor Lawrence Tribe,
"In early Post-Revolution America, abortion, at least early
in pregnancy, was neither prohibited nor uncommon."
(B-5: 28)

1821: First anti-abortion law (Connecticut) outlaws "post-
quickening" abortions. Early abortions remained legal in
that state until 1860, however. (A-1: 138)

1828: First law (NY) prohibiting early abortions. The legis-
lators' motivations were clear : In primitive, pre-antiseptic
days 30% of women having abortions died, posing a risk
10 times greater than that of childbirth. (B-2: 31)

1840: Abortion still fully legal in 18 of the 26 states.
(A-1: 139)

1850s: Ads for early "abortion pills" of dubious safety and
effectiveness are found in newspapers of the time. In order
to get around anti-abortion laws in some states, they are
advertised as medicines which, among other wonders,
will "bring on the monthly cycle." Women are "warned," in
large print, that pills will cause a miscarriage if taken early
in pregnancy, just to make sure the message got through.
(B-6: 208 & 319)

1860s: A wave of antiabortion statutes outlaws it in 36
states. (None allowed women to vote, so they had no
say.) Many legislators were truly concerned about a still-
dangerous operation. The all-male A.M.A. may also have
gotten on the bandwagon as part of a campaign to improve
the image of doctors, and "professionalize" medicine by
stifling opportunities for midwives and other "non-establish-
ment" female practitioners who did abortions (plus many
other medical services) for female patients. Falling birth
rates among "native born Caucasian women" were also a
racist and xenophobic concern in the late 19th Century,
and another of several convergent factors leading to abor-
tion prohibition. (A-1: 141-146) (B-1: 19-28) (A-3: 14)
(B-4: 162) (D-4:1)

1873: Victorianism rules, as the Comstock Act makes dis-
semination of information about abortion OR birth control
a federal crime. (D-1:2)

1910: There were an estimated 80,000 illegal abortions in
New York City alone, as prohibition never stops the prac-
tice, just makes it more dangerous. (B-2: 32)

1930: Early abortions are now safer than childbirth, so
the original "protection of women" justification is now
obsolete and counterproductive. (A-2: 1)

1935: Seventy-five New York doctors do about 190,000
illegal abortions annually, according to the Medical Exam-
iner for the New York City Board of Health. One fourth of
the patients admitted to Bellevue Hospital obstetric wards
were there because of poorly-performed illegal abortions.
(A-6: 176 & 180.)

1936: Dr. Frederick Joseph Taussig publishes a landmark
study of abortion in the United States, carefully estimating
that some 681,600 occur every year, with 8,000 deaths
among the women patients. In some industrial centers
during the depression years, the number of abortions is
approximately equal to the number of births. (A-14: 4)

1940s & 1950s: Illegal abortion is now one of the biggest
"rackets" in the country, and is widely available to those
with money and connections. But a lack of hospital facil-
ities and no supervision means women still suffered
exploitation, mutilation, and even death in back-alley
abortion mills, or from self-abortion. (A-12: 199) (A-18:
194) In 1958, eighteen states could still jail the woman
for her part in the "crime" (A-17: 70), though usually the
threat of jail was enough to get her to testify against who-
ever performed the procedure and gain immunity.

1959: The American Law Institute frames a model abor-
tion law which would permit abortions if continuation of
the pregnancy "would gravely impair the physical or men-
tal health of the mother," or if the doctor believed "that the
child would be born with grave physical or mental defects"
or if the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest. (B-2: 102)

1962: CBS televises a strongly prochoice episode of "The
Defenders" despite many sponsor defections. (A-4: 193).
Sherri Finkbine's inability to get an abortion in the United
States after learning that her sleeping pills (Thalidomide)
caused severe fetal deformities gets wide attention, and
sympathy for reform grows. (A-15: 54) She eventually has
to go to Sweden to have the operation. (A-5: 89)

1965: The A.C.L.U. calls for abortion legalization. (D-3). In
the mid-60's, only 8,000 of the estimated 1,000,000 annual
abortions are performed safely and legally. (A-19:9)

1966: The Association to Repeal Abortion Laws in Calfor-
nia is begun by Patricia Maginnis, founder of the Society
for Humane Abortion. (B-3: 396) (B-2: 103 & 109).

1967: Colorado becomes the first state to liberalize its
laws along the lines of the A.L.I.'s 1959 suggestions. (A-20:
69). California and North Carolina pass similar laws that
same year. The National Organization for Women calls for
full legalization. (D-6: 1)

1968: Georgia and Maryland liberalize their laws.

1969: Five more states (Arkansas, Kansas, Delaware, Ore-
gon, and New Mexico) ease their laws, and the National
Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws is organized
to promote full legalization (B-2: 105). The number of legal
abortions increases to 22,700 this year, 15,339 of them
in California. (A-13).

1970: This is a true watershed year in the struggle for
reproductive rights. Hawaii became the first state to REPEAL,
not just moderately "reform" its old law, and New York made
"abortion on demand" up to 24 weeks available to ANY
woman in the U.S. by refusing to impose a residency re-
quirement. (B-2: 114-122). Washington state's old law was
overturned in a public referendum. The number of legal
abortions performed in 1970 jumped to 193,500 (D-2: 1)
of which 73,000 were in New York (A-11: 1) and 62,000
in California (A-11: 17).

1971: Maternal deaths in New York drop to half of previous
levels (A-9: 22). Legal abortions performed this year number
485,000 (D-2: 1), 262,807 in New York (A-8) and 116,749
in California (A-13) (A-10: 29) as the approval process in
that state is streamlined to a one-day procedure.

1972: 64% of Americans tell the Gallup Poll "The decision to
have an abortion should be made solely by a woman and
her physician." (A-7: 1) Legal abortions this year, 586,000
(D-2: 1) clearly outnumber illegal operations for the first time since the 1860's. The California Supreme Court strikes down virtually all restrictions during the first 20 weeks (A-10: 1).
Massive counter offensive is launched by opponents of
abortion as both sides gear up for an all-out battle in 1973.
(A 16:6)

1973: On January 22, the U.S. Supreme Court returns the
country to "traditional (prochoice) values," and ends Amer-
ica's disastrous, century-long experiment with "abortion prohibition." But the battle to KEEP this hard-won right from being slowly chipped away or sudenly overturned continues
to this day.


ABBREVIATIONS USED IN CITATIONS

(A) = Article
(B) = Book or booklet
(D) = Organizational document

A-1: 93 Supreme Court Reporter 410 U.S. 132-146 ; "Roe
vs. Wade" decision, cited as "93 S.Ct. 705 (1973)"

A-2: ASA Reprint from Civil Liberties, Sep. 1973

A-3: "The Right to Abortion" in The Freedom Socialist, Vol.
7, #4, Summer 1982.

A-4: "CBS on Abortion" America, May 5, 1962

A-5: "Is Abortion Ever Justified ?" U.S. News and World
Report, September 3, 1962.

A-6: "The Abortion Racket" in The Forum, Sep, 1935.

A-7: "Survey Finds Majority, In Shift, Now Favors Liberal-
ized Laws" New York Times, Aug 25, 1972

A-8: "262,808 Abortions In State In 1971" New York
Times, Sep 1, 1972.

A-9: "18 Million Rated Highly On Health" New York Times,
Jan 4, 1972.

A-10: "State High Court Strikes Down Major Limitations
On Abortions" Los Angeles Times, Nov 23, 1972.

A-11: "Birthrate Hits 31-Year Low While Legal Abortions
Rise" Los Angeles Times, Feb 29, 1972.

A-12: "The Abortion Racket" by Edwin M. Schur. The
Nation, March 5, 1955.

A-13: "Legal Abortions Nearly Double In State for '71"
Los Angeles Times June 7, 1972.

A-14: "The Toll of Abortion" Birth Control Review, April,
1936.

A-15: "Abortion: Mercy - Or Murder ?" Newsweek, Aug
13, 1962.

A-16: "Counterattack on Abortion Gains Ground" Los
Angeles Times, Aug 14, 1972.

A-17: "Abortion in the U.S." Time June 2, 1958.

A-18: "What Everyone Should Know About Abortion"
The American Mercury, August, 1941.

A-19: "Abortion Backers Hopeful of Gains" New York
Times, Oct 9, 1972.

A-20: "New Grounds for Abortion" Time May 5, 1967

BOOKS:

B-1: "Witches, Midwives and Nurses" by Barbara Ehren-
reich and Deirdre English [ Glass Mountain Pamphlets,
Box 238, Oyster Bay, NY 11771 ]

B-2: "Abortion Freedom - A Worldwide Movement" by
Colin Francome.

B-3: "The Women's Movement" by Barbara Deckard.

B-4: "Womanhood In America From Colonial Times To The
Present" by Mary P. Ryan

B-5: "Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes" by Lawrence Tribe.

B-6: "Catharine Beecher, A Study in American Domesticity"
by Kathryn Kish Sklar.


DOCUMENTS:

D-1: N.O.W. Reproductive Rights Resource Kit: A Brief
Chronology.

D-2: Zero Population Growth flyer, "The Right to Choose:
Facts on Abortion." All figures from Department of Health,
Education and Welfare Center for Disease Control in
Atlanta,Georgia.

D-3: "The ACLU's Campaign for Choice." ACLU brochure.

D-4: N.O.W. Reproductive Rights Resource Kit: Abortion,
Federal Status.

D-5: N.O.W. Reproductive Rights Resource Kit: Contra-
ception, Sterilization and Other Issues.

D-6: N.O.W. Reproductive Rights Resource Kit: NOW
Policy







                    ===================

                    PART TWO : 1973-2013

                    ===================


January 30, 1973 : The legislative attack on

“Roe” by anti-abortion forces formally began

when Rep. Lawrence Hogan (R-MD) introduced

the first “Human Life Amendment” in Congress

(H.J. Res. 261). It would have established

personhood at conception if approved by 2/3

of Congress and ¾ of the state legislatures.

Other “H.L.A.’s” would follow.

 

May 14, 1973 : As the anti-abortion backlash

continues, the “National Right to Life Committee”

is incorporated.

 

June 16, 1975 : The Supreme Court rules in the

case of Bigelow v. Virginia (421 U.S. 809) that a

state does not have the right to ban advertise-

ments which relate to abortion services.

 

September 30, 1976 : The “Hyde Amendment”

is signed into law. It prohibited Medicaid funding

for abortions with no exceptions. Later versions

included exceptions for rape or incest (if reported

to the authorities) pregnancies that threatened the

life of the woman, or where two physicians deter-

mined that continuation of the pregnancy could

result in “severe and long-lasting physical health

damage.”

 

July 2, 1979 : In the case of “Belliotti v. Baird”

(443 U.S. 622), the Supreme Court ruled 8-1

that states may not require consent of a parent

for a minor to have an abortion if she can get the

permission of a judge first.

 

September 15-16, 1979 : The National Right to

Life Political Action Committee is established.

 

June 30, 1980 : The Supreme Court rules in the

case of Harris v. McRae (448 U.S. 297) that the

Hyde Amendment, which banned funding of

abortions under most circumstances, was consti-

tutional, and states that participated in Medicaid programs were not required to fund such pro-

cedures.

 

June 15, 1983 : In the case of City of Akron v.

Akron Center for Reproductive Health (462 U.S.

416), the Supreme Court ruled several of the

city’s abortion-related statutes unconstitutional :

(1) That all abortions performed after the first

trimester must be done in hospitals ; (2)

Requiring a physician to obtain the consent of

at least one parent of an unmarried minor under

age 15 (or that she get a judicial bypass) ; (3) A requirement that physicians read a state-mandated

script to discourage the woman from having an

abortion ; (4) A 24-hour waiting period after

signing the consent form, and (5) A vaguely-

worded statute dealing with the disposal of fetal

remains.

 

June 28, 1983 : The Eagleton-Hatch Amendment,

which would have declared that “A right to abor-

tion is not secured by the Constitution” gets only

49 votes in the Senate, with 50 opposed. Sixty-

six of the 99 Senators present and voting would

have been needed for passage.

 

November 10, 1983 : Congress approves the

Ashbrook Amendment. It excludes abortion -

except when necessary to save the life of the

woman - from the health benefits of public

employees.

 

June 24, 1984 : The “Ladies Center” in Pensa-

cola, Florida is bombed.

 

December 25, 1984 : The “Ladies Center” and

two other clinics where abortions are performed

in Pensacola, Florida, are bombed by Matt

Goldsby, Jimmy Simmons, Kathy Simmons and

Kaye Wiggins.

 

March 9, 1986 : The “March for Women’s Lives,”

sponsored and coordinated by the National

Organization for Women, in support of abortion

rights and birth control, drew a crowd of

125,000 in Washington, D.C.

 

March 16, 1986 : Thirty thousand participated

in another “March for Women’s Lives” in Los

Angeles despite drenching rain and thunder-

storms. There were six more such marches

(Denver, CO ; Harrisburg, PA ; Trenton, NJ ;

Boston, MA ; Seattle, WA and Portland, OR)

 

June 11, 1986 : The U.S. Supreme Court rules in

the case of Thornburgh v. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (476 U.S. 747)

that several laws passed by the Pennsylvania

Legislature were clearly designed to deter women

from having abortions, not protect their health,

and were therefore unconstitutional.

 

October 23, 1987 : The nomination of abortion

opponent Robert Bork to the Supreme Court

is defeated 58-42.

 

September 26, 1988 : The Food and Drug

Administration issues an “Import Bulletin”

banning the importation of RU-486 into

the U.S. for personal use.

 

April 9, 1989 : “March for Women’s Lives”

draws 600,000 supporters of abortion rights

to Washington, D.C.

 

July 3, 1989 : The U.S  Supreme Court ruled in

the case of “Webster v. Reproductive Health

Services” (492 U.S. 490) that all of the laws

contested in the case, and passed by the State

of Missouri were constitutional. The laws pro-

hibited public employees from assisting in

abortions and public facilities from being used

to perform them. Missouri also required phy-

sicians to perform fetal viability tests on all

pregnancies of 20 weeks or more.

 

June 25, 1990 : The U.S. Supreme Court

ruled in the case of “Hodgson v. Minnesota”

(497 U.S. 417) that the state could not require

a woman under 18 to get the permission of

both her parents before undergoing an abortion,

but it could require her to get the permission of

one parent, and be required to wait 48 hours

after that permission was obtained before having

an abortion. But it also upheld a law allowing a

minor to bypass parental permission by getting

a judge’s permission.

 

May 23, 1991 : In the case of “Rust v. Sullivan”

(500 U.S. 173), the Supreme Court ruled 5-4

that the “Gag Rule,” which barred abortion

counseling and referrals by family planning

providers who took Title X funds was constitu-

tional.  

 

October 15, 1991 : The nomination of abor-

tion opponent Clarence Thomas is confirmed

by the Senate, 52-48.

 

April 5, 1992 : “March for Women’s Lives” in

Washington, D.C. draws 750,000

 

June 29, 1992 : The Supreme Court ruled 5-4

in the case of “Planned Parenthood of South-

eastern Pennsylvania v. Casey” (505 U.S. 833)

that though its decision in “Roe” was still valid,

states could pass laws restricting abortion as long

as they do not impose an “undue burden,” which

the Court defined as a “substantial obstacle in the

path of a woman seeking an abortion before the

fetus attains viability.” So Pennsylvania could

require “informed consent” and a 24-hour waiting

period prior to the procedure, and consent of one

parent in the case of a minor. But a requirement

that a married woman had to notify her husband

before having the procedure was rejected by the

Court.

 

July 1, 1992 : Leona Benten openly challenged

the ban on importing RU-486 (often called the

“French abortion pill” at the time) by appearing

at a press conference at J.F.K. Airport with a

bottle of RU-486 that she had brought with her

from London. Customs officials seized her pills,

and she went to court in an unsuccessful

attempt to get them back.

 

January 22, 1993 : President Clinton rescinds the

“gag rule,” and other anti-abortion executive

orders by President Ronald Reagan.

 

March 10, 1993 : Dr. David Gunn is murdered

outside his clinic in Pensacola, Florida by Michael

Griffin.

 

April 21, 1993 : Roussel-Uclaf agreed to license

RU-486 in the U.S. to the Population Council,

which agreed to run a clinical trial involving at

least 2,000 women. 

 

August 19, 1993 : Dr. George Tiller is wounded

as he drives out of the parking lot of his Wichita,

Kansas, clinic by Rachelle “Shelley” Shannon.

 

May 16, 1994 : Roussel Uclaf donates the patent

rights to RU-486 to the Population Council.

 

May 26, 1994 : President Clinton signed the

“Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act”

to combat increasingly aggressive and violent

tactics by militant antiabortion groups and

individuals against clinics that performed

abortions as part of their health services

for women.

 

July 29, 1994 :  Dr. John Bayard Britton and

James H. Barrett were murdered outside a

Pensacola, Florida clinic by Paul J. Hill.

 

October 27, 1994 : The Population Council

announced that RU-486 is being tested in the

U.S.

 

December 30, 1994 : John Salvi kills two

and wounds five others at two Boston-area

abortion clinics.

 

August 10, 1995 : Norma McCorvey, known

as “Jane Roe” in “Roe vs. Wade,” announces

on “Nightline” that she is now anti-abortion.

 

April 10, 1996 : President Clinton vetoes the

so-called “Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act.”

 

September 18, 1996 : The F.D.A. gives

conditional approval to RU-486.

 

February 19, 1997 : In the case of “Schenck v.

Pro-Choice Network of Western New York”

(519 U.S. 357) the Supreme Court upheld a

fixed 15-foot buffer zone between militant

anti-abortion protesters and clinic doorways,

driveways, and parking lot entrances. But it

rejected a “floating” buffer zone around

patients or their vehicles entering or exiting

the clinic. 

 

April 8, 1997 : Hoechst AG says it will no longer

produce RU-486 and is turning all rights over to

the Population Council.

 

October 10, 1997 : President Clinton vetoes the

“Partial Birth” abortion bill a second time.

 

January 29, 1998 : A clinic in Birmingham,

Alabama in bombed by Eric Robert Rudolph,

killing Richard Sanderson and severely wound-

ing Emily Lyons.

 

April 30, 1998 : The New England Journal of

Medicine publishes an article declaring RU-486

safe.

 

October 23, 1998 : Dr. Barnett Slepian is murdered

in his home in a suburb of Buffalo, New York by

James Kopp.

 

June 28, 2000 : The Supreme Court ruled 5-4 in

the case of “Stenberg v. Carhart” (530 U.S. 914)

that the State of Nebraska’s law prohibiting so-

called “partial birth” abortions was unconstitu-

tional. The court majority found that it placed an

undue burden on the woman’s right to have an

abortion, and did not make exceptions if her

health was threatened.

 

September 28, 2000 : The F.D.A. approved

RU-486 as a safe and effective method for

terminating early pregnancies.

 

April 25, 2004 : N.O.W.’s “March for Women’s

Lives” in Washington, D.C. becomes the largest

women’s rights march in history with a million

participants. 

 

November 6, 2006 : Abortion ban fails at the

polls in South Dakota, as do “parental

notification” referenda in Oregon and

California.

 

November 13, 2007 :  Massachusetts governor

signs a bill giving greater protection to abortion

clinics.

 

January 23, 2009 : President Obama repeals

international “Gag Rule.”

 

May 31, 2009 : Dr. George Tiller is murdered

in a church in Wichita, Kansas, by Scott Roeder.

 

June 11, 2010 : Florida’s governor vetoes a

bill that required women to have ultrasounds

before abortions.

 

November 2, 2010 : Colorado voters reject

anti-abortion measure.

 

April 12, 2011 : Kansas governor signs

legislation restricting abortion.

 

April 13, 2011 : Idaho governor signs

legislation banning abortions after 20

weeks.

 

April 19, 2011 : Oklahoma governor signs

legislation banning abortions after 20

weeks. On December 4, 2012 the State

Supreme Court struck down the ban. 

 

April 27, 2011 : Indiana bans abortion

after 20 weeks.

 

June 30, 2011 : According to the Alan

Guttmacher Institute, “In the first six months

of 2011, states enacted 162 new provisions

related to reproductive health and rights.

Fully 49% of these new laws seek to restrict

access to abortion services, a sharp increase

from 2010, when 26% of new laws restricted

abortion. The 80 abortion restrictions enacted

this year are more than double the previous

record of 34 abortion restrictions enacted in

2005 – and more than triple the 23 enacted

in 2010. All of these new provisions were

enacted in just 19 states.”

 

July 20, 2011 : Ohio governor signs a bill

banning abortion after 20 weeks.

 

December 31, 2011 : Abortion opponents

passed a record high of 92 bills restricting

abortion in 24 states.

 

April 13, 2012 : Arizona governor signed a

bill banning abortions after 20 weeks.

 

December 27-30, 2012 : A Gallup Poll

showed that 53% of Americans support

“Roe” while only 29% wanted it overturned,

and 18% had no opinion.

 

December 31, 2012 : Abortion opponents

passed 43 bills restricting abortion rights in

19 states during the year. There were 122

laws passed relating to reproductive rights

in 42 stats and the District of Columbia.

 

January 9, 2013 : The First U.S. District Court

of Appeals upheld a Massachusetts law that

established a 35-foot “buffer zone” around

clinics that provide abortions. 

 

February 5, 2013 : President Obama sent a

video expressing his strong support for abortion

rights to the “NARAL Pro-Choice America” annual

dinner. He said : “Tonight we celebrate the

historic “Roe vs. Wade” decision handed down

40 years ago, but we also gather to recommit

ourselves to the decisuion’s guiding principle :

that women should be able to make their own

choices about their bodies and their health care.

We reaffirm our steadfast commitment to pro-

tecting women’s access to safe, affordable

health care, and her right to reproductive

freedom because we know that we are better

off as a nation when women are treated fairly

and equally in every aspect of life, whether it’s

the salary you earn or the health decisions you

make. This is a country where the success of

all of us depends upon the empowerment of

each of us.”


============================

                         SOURCES :

============================

 

01/30/73 : thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d093:H.J.Res261:

 

05/14/73 : Encyclopedia of American Religion

and Politics, Page 300.

 

09/30/76 : Center for American Progress, “The

Hyde Amendment : 30 Years of Violating

Women’s Rights,” by Marlene Gerber Fried,

October 6, 2006.

 

09/15/79 : Catholic News Agency.com,

Abortion History Timeline.

 

06/28/83 : New York Times, June 29, 1983,

“Foes of Abortion Beaten in Senate on

Amendment Bid,” by David Shribman.

 

11/10/83 : Catholic News Agency.com,

Abortion History Timeline.

 

06/24/84 : Washington Post, July 30, 1994,

“Pensacola’s Chain of Violence,” by Ann O’

Hanlon.

 

12/25/84 : Washington Post, July 30, 1994,

“Pensacola’s Chain of Violence,” by Ann O’

Hanlon.

 

03/09/86 : The Feminist Chronicles, by Toni

Carabillo, Judith Meuli and June Bundy Csida,

Page 117.

 

03/16/86 : The Feminist Chronicles, by Toni

Carabillo, Judith Meuli and June Bundy Csida,

Page 117.

 

10/23/87 : NYT, October 24, 1987, “Bork’s

Nomination is Rejected, 58-42 ; Reagan

‘Saddened,’ ” by Linda Greenhouse.

 

09/26/88 : “The Story of RU-486 in the

United States,” by Elizabeth Pinho, Page 10.

http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:8889480

 

04/09/89 : NYT, April 10, 1989, “Right to

Abortion Draws Thousands to Capital Rally,”

by Robin Toner. / “The Feminist Chronicles,”

by Toni Carabillo, Judith Meuli, and June

Bundy Csida, Page 131.

 

10/15/91 : NYT, October 16, 1991, “The

Thomas Confirmation : Senate Confirms

Thomas, 52-48, Ending Week of Bitter

Battle ; ‘Time for Healing,’ Judge Says,”

by R. W. Apple, Jr.

 

04/05/92 : “The Feminist Chronicles,” by Toni

Carabillo, Judith Meuli and June Bundy Csida,

Page 144.

 

07/01/92 : “The Story of RU-486 in the U.S.,”

by Elizabeth Pinho, page 12.

 

01/22/93 : NYT, January 23, 1993, “The

Abortion Tide Turns,” Editorial/Opinion section.

 

03/10/93 : NYT, March 11, 1993, “Doctor Is

Slain During Protest Over Abortions,” by

Larry Rohter.

 

04/21/93 : “The Story of RU-486 in the U.S.,”

by Elizabeth Pinho, page 16.

 

08/19/93 : NYT, August 20, 1993, “Abortion

Doctor Wounded Outside Kansas Clinic,” by

Seth Faison / NYT, August 22, 1993, “Suspect

in Doctor’s Shooting Praised Killing.”

 

05/16/94 : NYT, May 17, 1994, “Accord Opens

Way for Abortion Pill in U.S. in 2 Years,” by

Katharine Q. Seelye / NYT, May 17, 1994,
“RU-486 – Here At Last,” Editorial Section. 

 

05/26/94 : NYT, May 27, 1994, “Clinton Signs

Bill Banning Blockades and Violent Acts at

Abortion Clinics,” By Gwen Ifill.

 

07/29/94 : NYT, July 30, 1994, “Death of A

Doctor : The Overview – Abortion Doctor and

Bodyguard Slain in Florida ; Protester Is

Arrested in Pensacola’s 2d Clinic Killing,” by

Ronald Smothers.

 

10/27/94 : NYT, October 28, 1994, “Clinic

Trials of French Abortion Pill Begin in U.S.,”

by Philip J. Hilts.

 

12/30/94 : NYT, December 31, 1994, “Anti-

Abortion Killings : The Overview ; Gunman

Kills 2 at Abortion Clinic in Boston Suburb,”

by John Kifner.

 

08/10/95 : NYT, August 11, 1995, “ ’Jane

Roe’ Joins Anti-Abortion Group.”

 

04/10/96 : NYT, April 11,1996, “President

Vetoes Measure Banning Type of Abortion,”

by Todd S. Purdum.

 

09/18/96 : “The Story of RU-486 Approval in

the United States,” by Elizabeth Pinho, page

42.

 

04/08/97 : NYT, April 9, 1997, “Pill for

Abortion Ends Production.”

 

10/10/97 : NYT, October 11, 1997, “Clinton

Again Vetoes Measure To Ban a Method of

Abortion,” by James Bennett.

 

01/29/98 : NYT, January 30, 1998, “Bomb

Kills Guard at Alabama Abortion Clinic,” by

Rick Bragg. / CNN Justice, July 18, 2005,

“Rudolph Gets Life for Birmingham Clinic

Attack.”

 

04/30/98 : NYT, April 30, 1998, “Abortion

Pill Tests Well in United States, Drug’s

Sponsor Says,” by Gina Kolata

 

10/23/98 : NYT, October 25, 1998, “Abortion

Doctor in Buffalo Slain ; sniper Attack Fits

Violent Pattern,” by Jim Yardley & David Rohde.

 

09/28/00 : “The Story of RU-486 in the

United States” by Elizabeth Pinho, Page 1.

 

04/25/04 : NYT, April 26, 2004 : “Abortion

Rights Marchers Vow to Fight Another Bush

Term,” by Robin Toner. / Women’s e-news,

Health, April 25, 2004, “Pro-Choice March

Largest in History,” by Allison Stevens.

 

11/06/06 : NYT, November 7, 2006,

“The 2006 Elections : Ballot Measures : South

Dakotans Reject Sweeping Abortion Ban,” by

Monica Davey.

 

11/13/07 : NYT, November 14, 2007, “New

England ; Massachusetts : Abortion Clinic

Buffer Zones,” by Katie Zezima.

 

01/23/09 : NYT, January 24, 2009, “Obama

Reverses Rule on U.S. Abortion Aid,” by

Peter Baker.

 

05/31/09 : NYT, June 1, 2009, “Abortion

Doctor Slain by Gunman in Kansas Church,”

by Joe Stumpe & Monica Davey.

 

06/11/10 : NYT, June 12, 2010, “Florida

Governor Vetoes Abortion Ultrasound Bill,” by

Damien Cave.

 

11/02/10 : jurist.org/timelines/2012/04/

reproductive-rights-timeline.php

 

04/13/11 : jurist.org/timelines/2012/04/

reproductive-rights-timeline.php

 

04/13/11 : jurist.org/timelines/2012/04/

reproductive-rights-timeline.php

 

 

04/19/11 : jurist.org/timelines/2012/04/

reproductive-rights-timeline.php

 

 

04/27/11 : jurist.org/timelines/2012/04/

reproductive-rights-timeline.php

 

06/30/11 : “Think Progress / Health /

News Flash #80.”

 

07/20/11 : jurist.org/timelines/2012/04/

reproductive-rights-timeline.php

 

12/31/11 : Wall Street Journal, January

22, 2013, “Abortion and the Law : A Look

Toward 2013,” by Ashby Jones.

 

04/13/12 : jurist.org/timelines/2012/04/

reproductive-rights-timeline.php

 

12/27/12 : “Gallup Politics, January 22, 2013,

“Majority of Americans Still Support Roe vs.

Wade Decision.”

 

12/31/12 : Wall Street Journal, January

22, 2013, “Abortion and the Law : A Look

Toward 2013,” by Ashby Jones. /

Guttmacher Institute Media Center,

January 3, 2013, “2012 Saw Second-

Highest Number of Abortion Restrictions

Ever.”

 

01/09/13 : Feminist Majority Foundation

Blog, January 10, 2013, “Federal Court

Upholds MA Clinic ‘Buffer Zone.’ “ by

Admin ; Sources, Boston Globe 1/9/2013

and WBUR, 1/9/2013

 

02/05/13 : Politico.com, Politico Pro, Feb-

ruary 5, 2013, “President Obama Sends

Support to Abortion Rights Group.”